I suppose once an engineer, always an engineer. Malcolm and I reminisce about our time at Arizona. We worked throughout and were able to graduate without debt.
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Not so today. Malcolm remarked on the discrimination in the industry to women engineers. Earlier at the house, Malcolm showed us his remarkable workshop where he builds working steam engines and his greenhouse of orchids. To see each other for the second time in 50 years was satisfying and felt like we had not been separated by so many years. Class of , BS in Chemical Engineering paultucson47 yahoo. My wife, Nancy, and I spent 17 days in Europe; first we traveled to France to see the cathedral at Reims where the French kings were crowned then visited the Champagne region, then went on to Paris to visit several friends.
Here are photos of the Palace of Versailles [at the top of the page] and the Beatles statue in Liverpool. I am not in any of the pictures as I haven't quite mastered the art of selfies. Class of , BS in Chemical Engineering mayoungaz gmail. Besides lounging on the beach enjoying the beautiful views, our favorite activity was taking a boat out to the Pitones and experiencing the sulfur baths and waterfalls. My husband and I went diving around the Marshall Islands, which are in the middle of nowhere in the Pacific Ocean, literally 2, miles from Japan, Australia and Hawaii.
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Class of , BS in Chemical Engineering joshipiraishan gmail. I have some good news to share. My PhD advisor is professor Michael Dickey. Attached is a photo from my defense with my parents, Dhiren and Smita Joshipura. My mother, Smita, is also a Arizona alum with an MS in library and information science. I will be joining Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California this fall as a postdoctoral researcher working on additive manufacturing techniques using liquid metals. Class of , PhD in Chemical Engineering longcheng email.
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Class of , BS in Chemical Engineering ryan. We climbed Moonlight Buttress back in April, with perfect conditions and little traffic on the route. Class of , BS in Chemical Engineering estebanj. Not many travels for me. I started working at Intel in Chandler mid-June, so my summer was relatively short.
I did go to Galveston, Texas, for a week to visit my girlfriend, so I attached the only picture we took there. My new job seems overwhelming at first, but I am learning a lot very quickly and it is ultimately pretty rewarding. It is definitely interesting to be done with school for the foreseeable future and entering a new stage in my life. My summer started out eventfully! I was accepted into the PhD program at the University of Arizona, and received the University Fellowship and the Harvill Fellowship, which will fund my graduate studies. Armin Sorooshian has graciously accepted me into his atmospheric sciences research group.
I am continuing aerials, and practicing salsa and swing dancing during my time at LANL. I picked up both activities up during my undergraduate internship at LANL last summer. I am also enjoying many hiking adventures. Class of , BS in Chemical Engineering juliedaffron email. The photo is of a deactivation furnace where we explode unused, defective or prototype inflators. Products stored in many facilities serve as intermediates or precursors for other processes.
Storage may also be required for diluents, solvents or other process materials. All of these materials are generally stored in above-ground storage tankage AST. Underground tankage is still used in some locations, but use is generally limited due to access problems and limited capacity.
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In addition, potential leakage of such underground storage tanks USTs presents environmental problems when leaks contaminate ground water. General earth contamination can lead to potential atmospheric exposures with higher vapour-pressure materials leaks. Leaked materials can be a potential exposure problem during ground remediation efforts. UST leakage has resulted in stringent environmental regulations in many countries, such as the requirements for double-walled tanks and underground monitoring.
Typical above-ground storage tanks are shown in figure Vertical ASTs are cone or domed roof tanks, floating roof tanks that are covered or non-covered floating roof or external floating roof tanks EFRTs. Converted or closed roof tanks are EFRTs with covers installed on the tanks that are frequently geodesic type domes. Since EFRTs over time do not maintain a perfectly circular shape, sealing the floating roof is difficult and a covering is installed on the tank.
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A geodesic dome design eliminates roof trusses needed for cone roof tanks FRTs. The geodesic dome is more economical than a cone roof and, in addition, the dome reduces losses of materials to the environment. Normally, the tanks are limited to liquid storage where the liquid vapour pressure does not exceed 77 kPa.
Where the pressure exceeds this value, spheroids or spheres are used since both are designed for pressure operation. Spheroids can be quite large but are not installed where the pressure may exceed certain limits defined by the mechanical design. For most higher vapour-pressure storage applications, spheres are normally the storage container and are equipped with pressure relief valves to prevent over pressuring.
A safety concern that has developed with spheres is rollover, which generates excessive vapour and results in relief valve discharges or in more extreme situations such as sphere wall rupture CCPS In general, the liquid contents stratify and if warm less dense material is loaded into the sphere bottom, the warm material rises to the surface with the cooler, higher density surface material rolled over to the bottom. The warm surface material vaporizes, raising the pressure, which may result in relief valve discharge or sphere overpressuring. Tankage layout requires careful planning.
There are recommendations for tank separation distances and other considerations CCPS ; In many locations, separation distances are not specified by code, but minimum distances OSHA can be a result of various decisions applicable to separation distances and locations. Some of these considerations are presented in table In addition, tank service is a factor in tank separation for pressurized, refrigerated and atmospheric tanks CCPS Dykes are required and are nominally sized volumetrically to hold the contents of a tank.
Where multiple tanks are within a dyke, the minimum volumetric dyke capacity is equivalent to the capacity of the largest tank OSHA The dyke walls can be constructed of earth, steel, concrete or solid masonry. However, the earth dykes should be impenetrable and have a flat top with a minimum width of 0. In addition, the soil within the dyked area should also have an impenetrable layer to prevent any chemical or oil leakage into the soil.
A problem that has been developing through the years is tank leakage as a result of corrosion in the tank bottom.
Frequently, tanks have water layers in the tank bottom that can contribute to corrosion, and electrolytic corrosion may occur due to contact with the earth. As a result, regulatory requirements have been instituted in various regions to control tank bottom leakage and underground soil and water contamination from contaminants in the water.
A variety of design procedures have been developed to control and monitor leakage Hagen and Rials In addition, double bottoms have also been installed. In some installations, cathodic protection has been installed to further control metal deterioration Barletta, Bayle and Kennelley Manually discharging water periodically from the tank bottom can result in exposure.
Visual observation to determine the interface through open manual draining can result in worker exposure. A closed discharge can be installed with an interface sensor and control valve minimizing potential worker exposures Lipton and Lynch A variety of sensors are commercially available for this service. Frequently, tanks are overfilled, creating potential safety and worker exposure hazards. This can be prevented with redundant or dual-level instruments controlling inlet block valves or feed pumps Bahner For many years, overflow lines were installed on chemical tanks, but they terminated a short distance above a drain opening to permit visual observation of the overflow discharge.
Moreover, the drain had to be sized for greater than the maximum fill rate to ensure proper drainage. However, such a system is a potential exposure source. This can be eliminated by connecting the overflow line directly to the drain with a flow indicator in the line to show the overflow.
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Although this will function satisfactorily, this results in overloading the drain system with a very large contaminant volume and potential health and safety problems. These procedures must be carefully controlled to prevent worker exposure and minimize potential safety hazards.
Following draining, tanks are frequently flushed with water to remove process liquid traces. Historically, the tanks have then been cleaned manually or mechanically where necessary. When tanks are drained, they are filled with vapour that may be toxic and can be within a combustible range. Water flushing may not significantly affect vapour toxicity, but it may reduce potential combustion problems. With floating roofs, the material below the floating roof can be flushed and drained, but some tanks may still have material in the sump.
This bottom material must be removed manually and may present potential exposure concerns. Personnel may be required to wear personal protective equipment PPE. Normally, enclosed tanks and any volume below the floating roofs are purged with air until a specified oxygen concentration level is achieved before entry is permitted.