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Sometimes, ugly, unsafe, or error-prone techniques are necessary for logical or performance reasons. Implementation complexity should, if at all possible, not leak through interfaces into user code.


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Consider a program that, depending on some form of input e. We might write. This violated the rule against uninitialized variables , the rule against ignoring ownership , and the rule against magic constants. In particular, someone has to remember to somewhere write. But we must also cope with the uncommon, less-safe, and necessarily more expensive cases. Such examples are discussed in [Str15]. Now, the dynamic nature of istream ownership has been encapsulated. Presumably, a bit of checking for potential errors would be added in real code. A function specifies an action or a computation that takes the system from one consistent state to the next.

It is the fundamental building block of programs. It should be possible to name a function meaningfully, to specify the requirements of its argument, and clearly state the relationship between the arguments and the result. An implementation is not a specification. Try to think about what a function does as well as about how it does it.

Block Relaxation Methods in Statistics

Functions are the most critical part in most interfaces, so see the interface rules. Factoring out common code makes code more readable, more likely to be reused, and limit errors from complex code. If something is a well-specified action, separate it out from its surrounding code and give it a name. It reads, it writes to a fixed ostream , it writes error messages to a fixed ostream , it handles only int s. There is nothing to reuse, logically separate operations are intermingled and local variables are in scope after the end of their logical use. For a tiny example, this looks OK, but if the input operation, the output operation, and the error handling had been more complicated the tangled mess could become hard to understand.

If you write a non-trivial lambda that potentially can be used in more than one place, give it a name by assigning it to a usually non-local variable.

Naming that lambda breaks up the expression into its logical parts and provides a strong hint to the meaning of the lambda. Loop bodies, including lambdas used as loop bodies, rarely need to be named. However, large loop bodies e. This is a monolith that is tied to a specific input and will never find another different use. Instead, break functions up into suitable logical parts and parameterize:. Large functions are hard to read, more likely to contain complex code, and more likely to have variables in larger than minimal scopes.

Functions with complex control structures are more likely to be long and more likely to hide logical errors. This is too complex. How would you know if all possible alternatives have been correctly handled? Yes, it breaks other rules also. Break large functions up into smaller cohesive and named functions. Small simple functions are easily inlined where the cost of a function call is significant.

Most computation is best done at run time.

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Any API that may eventually depend on high-level run-time configuration or business logic should not be made constexpr. Such customization can not be evaluated by the compiler, and any constexpr functions that depended upon that API would have to be refactored or drop constexpr. Impossible and unnecessary. The compiler gives an error if a non- constexpr function is called where a constant is required. Over the last 40 years or so, we have been promised compilers that can inline better than humans without hints from humans.

245C, Notes 4: Sobolev spaces

We are still waiting. Specifying inline encourages the compiler to do a better job. Do not put an inline function in what is meant to be a stable interface unless you are certain that it will not change. An inline function is part of the ABI.


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Template functions incl. Flag inline functions that are more than three statements and could have been declared out of line such as class member functions. If an exception is not supposed to be thrown, the program cannot be assumed to cope with the error and should be terminated as soon as possible. Declaring a function noexcept helps optimizers by reducing the number of alternative execution paths. It also speeds up the exit after failure.

Put noexcept on every function written completely in C or in any other language without exceptions. If collect runs out of memory, the program crashes. Unless the program is crafted to survive memory exhaustion, that may be just the right thing to do; terminate may generate suitable error log information but after memory runs out it is hard to do anything clever.

You must be aware of the execution environment that your code is running when deciding whether to tag a function noexcept , especially because of the issue of throwing and allocation. However, most programs and execution environments cannot meaningfully handle a failure to allocate, and aborting the program is the cleanest and simplest response to an allocation failure in those cases. If you know that your application code cannot respond to an allocation failure, it may be appropriate to add noexcept even on functions that allocate.

Put another way: In most programs, most functions can throw e. Destructors, swap functions, move operations, and default constructors should never throw. See also C.

Hölder condition

Passing a smart pointer transfers or shares ownership and should only be used when ownership semantics are intended see R. Passing by smart pointer restricts the use of a function to callers that use smart pointers. Passing a shared smart pointer e. Pure functions are easier to reason about, sometimes easier to optimize and even parallelize , and sometimes can be memoized. Both let the caller know that a function will not modify the argument, and both allow initialization by rvalues.

When copying is cheap, nothing beats the simplicity and safety of copying, and for small objects up to two or three words it is also faster than passing by reference because it does not require an extra indirection to access from the function. Assuming that Matrix has move operations possibly by keeping its elements in a std::vector :. A reference may be assumed to refer to a valid object language rule.

Global - Supplementary

That can in itself be a problem and a source of errors:. Here, the writer of g is supplying a buffer for f to fill, but f simply replaces it at a somewhat higher cost than a simple copy of the characters. A bad logic error can happen if the writer of g incorrectly assumes the size of the buffer. That could be dangerous. Passing by value does generate one extra cheap move operation, but prefer simplicity and clarity first. If the object is to be passed onward to other code and not directly used by this function, we want to make this function agnostic to the argument const -ness and rvalue-ness.

This includes large objects like standard containers that use implicit move operations for performance and to avoid explicit memory management. If you have multiple values to return, use a tuple or similar multi-member type. A struct of many individually cheap-to-move elements may be in aggregate expensive to move. It is not recommended to return a const value. Such older advice is now obsolete; it does not add value, and it interferes with move semantics. The argument for adding const to a return value is that it prevents very rare accidental access to a temporary.

The argument against is prevents very frequent use of move semantics. Prefer using a named struct where there are semantics to the returned value.

Proof that f(x) = x^2 is Uniformly Continuous on (0, 1)

Otherwise, a nameless tuple is useful in generic code. Sometimes, we need to pass an object to a function to manipulate its state. Explicitly passing an in-out parameter back out again as a return value is often not necessary. Here, both s and cin are used as in-out parameters. We pass cin by non- const reference to be able to manipulate its state.

We pass s to avoid repeated allocations. For a truly strict reading of this rule F. However, we prefer to be explicit, rather than subtle. The overly-generic pair and tuple should be used only when the value returned represents independent entities rather than an abstraction. This makes it hard to understand what the code does and is supposed to do. It complicates checking and tool support. When I call length p should I check if p is nullptr first?

Should the implementation of length check if p is nullptr?

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Typically, they are implicit and their correct use is very hard to ensure. A span represents a range of elements, but how do we manipulate elements of that range?